Figure 1. Approximate relative positions of North Korea’s last four underground nuclear tests.

Figure 1. Approximate relative positions of North Korea’s last four underground nuclear tests. Perspective view of Mt. Mantap showing the approximate relative positions of the four most recent underground nuclear tests, along with a cross-section cutaway showing a comparison of calculated burial depths for two of them given a horizontal tunnel emplacement: the May 2009 underground nuclear test (geo-location from Pabian/Hecker) providing a burial depth of ~490 meters and the September 2016 underground nuclear test (geo-location from Gibbons, et al., 2016) suggesting a North Korean intent to utilize the maximum overburden of about 800 meters.

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