Figure 2. A schematic illustration from a containment study showing various effects from a nuclear detonation involving gas migration through the damaged rock massif.

Figure 2. A schematic illustration from a containment study showing various effects from a nuclear detonation involving gas migration through the damaged rock massif. 1–underground works; 2–zero room; 3–damage zone radius; 4–spall zone; 5–tectonic faults; 6 and 7–first and second stemming. The spall zone is created by the shock wave coming to the free surface closest to the point of detonation. Some of the broken rock in that spall zone can be lofted upward, which generally falls back to the surface at origin. (Vitaly V. Adushkin, William Leith, The Containment of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions, United States Geological Survey, September 2001, https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0312/report.pdf.)

Stay informed about our latest
news, publications, & uploads: