Translator’s Note – Understanding Kim Jong Un’s Economic Policymaking: Pyongyang’s Views on Banking

Understanding Kim Jong Un’s Economic Policymaking:
Pyongyang’s Views on Banking 

Translator’s Note 

  1. 38 North has translated all tables of contents of North Korea’s top economic journal, Kyo’ngje Yo’ngu (Kyongje Yongu), as well as select articles of Kyo’ngje Yo’ngu and another key North Korean economic journal, Kim Il Sung Chonghaptaehakhakpo (Journal of Kim Il Sung University), from 2007 to 2020 as part of its North Korean economy project.
  2. All translations are by Rachel Minyoung Lee. The translations are based on the vernacular texts published on the website of the Tokyo-based DPR Korea Media (KPM), at The translations and their corresponding vernacular full texts are published by 38 North with KPM’s approval.
  3. The translations use a modified version of the McCune-Reischauer romanization system. Diacritics are replaced with apostrophes. Some proper nouns follow internationally recognized spellings or North Korean transliterations instead. Examples include the three Kim leaders’ names, Pyongyang, and Juche.
  4. Square brackets denote editorial notes, used for providing additional information such as alternative spellings for searchability and abbreviations.
  5. “Socialist enterprise responsibility management system [SERMS]” is used for 사회주의기업책임관리제 (sahoejuu’igio’p ch’aegimgwallije), Kim Jong Un’s key reform policy of giving greater autonomy to individual economic units. Pyongyang’s official English translation of this term is “socialist system of responsible business operation.” Another common English translation of this term is “socialist corporate responsible management system.” 

Translated Works Cited 


Relevant Translated Works